Ministry of Macroeconomy and Statistics
Economy of the State Uzbekistan

THE STATE COMMITTEE FOR FORECASTING AND STATISTICS OF THE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN

Main Computer Center

ECONOMY OF THE STATE OF UZBEKISTAN 1991-1995

INFORMATION DIGEST

Really estimating the situation formed in the Republic we have a right to state that Uzbekistan has entered into a qualitatively new stage of its state and political and economic development.

I.A. Karimov

State system of the Republic of Uzbekistan

On August 31, 1991 the independence of Uzbekistan was proclamed. The state sovereignty of Uzbekistan is recognized by more than 150 countries of the world. The diplomatic relation are established with 92 countries. In the Republic 88 foreign representatives are accredited. In Tashkent, the capital of the Republic of Uzbekistan, 38 countries including the USA, France, Germany, Italy, China, Japan, Great Britain, Israel, Turkey and others opened their embassys. Besides, 18 ambassadors of foreign states are accredited in the Republic of Uzbekistan pluralistically.

The Republic of Uzbekistan has its embassys in 20 countries of the world including France, the USA, Germany, Belgium, Great Britain, Austria, Japan, China, the KPDR, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, India, Iran, Pakistan, Turkey and other countries. The Republic of Uzbekistan is the full subject of International Low. On March 2, 1992 Uzbekistan was admitted to the United Nations Organization. The international organizations such as the United Nations Organization (UN), Commission of European Community (CEC), International Monetary Fund, World Bank, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, Representative of German Economy, German Society of Technical Assistance (GSTA) and others opened their representatives in Uzbekistan.

There are 24 intergovernment organizations including the French Institute for Study of Central Asia, Peace Corps, International Charity Corps, Euroasia Fund, Central AsiaAmerican Juriducal Consortium and others in Uzbekistan. There are 13 nongovernment organizations.

Uzbekistan has its representatives in the United Nations Organization, Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, Executive bodies of the CIS. In accordance with the Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan adopted on December 8, 1992 the principle of legislative, executive and judicial power dif-ferentation is srictly observed.

Oliy Majlis is the highest legislative body. Oliy Majlis is unicameral and consists of 250 deputates elected by territorial one-mandatory electoral districts on a multy-party base for a period of 5 years.

The modern president form of governing is established. The President is elected for the term of 5 years through direct elections on the alternative base. The Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan is the highest executive body.

The Republic of Uzbekistan includes autonomous Republic of Karakalpakstan, 12 districts, 163 rural regions and 119 cities in its administrative and territory struture. The khkims being appointed by the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan are the representatives of power in districts, regions and cities.

Geography

The Republic of Uzbekistan is situated between the rivers of Amu Darya and Syr Darya in the middle of Central Asia and covers an area of 447,4 thou. km^ The length of the Republic's territory from the West to the East is 1425 km, from the North to the South is 930 km.

The territory borders Kazakhstan to the North-West, Kirgizstan and Tajikistan to the East and South East, Turkmenistan to the West and Afghanistan to the South. The total length of the state frontiers is 6221 km.

Natural and climate conditions

Uzbekistan is one of the most favoured regions by its natural and geographic conditions.

The territory of Uzbekistan has a combination of plain and mountain relief. The mountain part belongs to the Eastern Tien Shan and Gissar-Alai ranges. The highest peak of Uzbekistan's mountains is 4663 m.

The climate of Uzbekistan is sharp continental. It is expressed in sharp amplitudes of day and night, summer and winter temperatures. The average annual amount of precipitation falling on plaine is 120-200 mm, highlands 100 mm. The largest rivers of both Uzbekistan and all Central Asia are Amu Darya and Syr Darya. The total length of Amu Darya is 1437 km, Syr Darya is 2137 km.

Population and labour resources

The populations of the Republic of Uzbekistan consists of 23 min inhabitants, by total population Uzbekistan takes the third place among the CIS countries and the first one among the countries of Central Asia. 38,4% of inhabitants live in urban areas and 61,6% in rural areas

The average population density was 51,4 persons per each km^ at the beginning of 1996.

In 1995 the natural population growth in the Republic of Uzbekistan was 23,0 persons per 1000.

Uzbekistan is a multinational Republic. At present the representatives of more than 130 nations and nationalities live here.

The great mass of population are Uzbeks, share of which in general population is 75,8%.

Uzbekistan has a great labour potential. Its share consists of 40% of the number of labour resources in Central Asia. The average age of the Uzbekistan's inhabitants is 23,9 years.

The peculiarity of the labour potential is its high educational level. Every fourth person engaged in the sphere of the material production and services has a higher or a specialized secondary education. There are 58 higher educational institutions. In connection with the transition to a market economy, the development of a small business, different forms of enterpreneurship a significant change in the structure of the population employment is taken place: a number of employed in individual sector of economy is increasing. In 1995 it increased 6,3 times against the level of 1992.

Uzbekistan has a high scientific potential especially in the field of agrarian, natural and exact sciences. The National Academy of Sciences has about 40 scientific centres and research laboratories. The transactions of Uzbek scientists in the field of history, chemistry, physics, mathematics are well known abroad. The Republic has the great potential of highly qualified scientists, engineers, physicians, teachers and other specialists in the fields of geology, mining, nuclear physics, cotton-growing agrochemistry.

Sites

A combination of the climatic zones of deserts, foothill regions and valleys offers the exellent opportunities for tourism and permits to rest here practically in any season of a year. The traditional oriental hospitality, the national traditions and art, the friendliness of people attract foreign tourist companies.

Uzbekistan with its unique heritage of the architecture, the great amount of history and culture monuments attracts many tourists. The country has a rather advantageous location for trade, culture and tourism development. All the world knows the historical towns-monuments such as Samarkand, Bukhara, Khiva, Shakhrisabz, Kokand and others. They are the museums under the open sky with about four thousand historical monuments of architecture. The world famous scientists, poets, inlight-eners, generals such as Al Khorezmi, Beruni, Abu Ali ibn Sino (Avicen-na), Amir Temur, Alisher Navoi, Ulugh Bek, Chulpon, Fitrat lived and worked on this earth. One of the most ancient towns of the world Samarkand is full of the beautiful architecture and history monuments. The Square Registan, the Observatory of Ulugh Bek, the Medrese Sher Dor are unique. The fortresses Torpak-Kala, Berput-Kala, Gildursoon, Kavat-Kala, the site of an ancient settlement Kjat are situated on the right bank of Amu Darya. There is a famous historic and architectural town near Khiva, the excavations of ancient Buddhist temples are being carried out in Termez region. There is a branched net of hotels, cafes and restaurants, campings, rest sites as well as many tourist routes by beautiful mountain paths and rivers in the Republic for complex tourist and excursion service.

Natural and mineral and raw material resources The Republic of Uzbekistan has a great productive and mineral and raw material potential, unique agricultural raw materials, significant volumes of half-finished products being obtained in processing, favourable natural resources, the developed infrastructure.

The modern level of minerals prospecting is connected with the exploitation of the richest deposits of noble, non-ferrous and rare metals, all kinds of the organic fuel oil, natural gas and gas condensate, brown and semicoking coal, combustible shales, uranium, many types of raw building materials. On the territory of the Republic of Uzbekistan a wide complex of minerals including about 100 types of mineral raw materials of which 60 ones are already used in the national economy is revealed.

More than 2700 deposits of different minerals are revealed, 900 ones of which are prospected including 155 of oil, gas and condensate; more than 40 of precious metals; 40 of non-ferrous, rare and radioactive metals; 3 of coal; 20 of ore mining raw materials, 15 of mining and chemical raw materials and 20 of semi-precious stones; 463 of raw building materials; 151 of groundwaters (592 sites) of different purposes. Hydrocarbon raw materials (oil, gas, condensate), gold, non-ferrous, rare and radioactive metals, ceramic and glass raw materials, flux, refractory and other ore mining raw materials for mineral fertilizer production, raw materials for chemical industry, raw building materials are of great value. The total mineral and raw material potential of Uzbekistan is more than US $ 3,0 trillion in accordance with the data of foreign experts.

By some important minerals such as gold, uranium, copper, natural gas, wolfram, potassium salts, phosphorites, kaolins Uzbekistan by proved reserves and perspective ores takes the leading places not only in the CIS but all over the world. The Republic is on the 4th place by the reserves of gold in the world and on the 7th place by the level of its production.

It takes the 10-11th place by the reserves of copper; 7-8th place by the reserves of uranium and 11-12th place by its production.

Enterprises for extraction and processing of wolfram, lead, zinc, fluorspar, natural gas, oil, condensate, coal, natural salts, different building materials and underground water are working now.

Minerals to the amount of about US $ 5,5 bl are extracted and new reserves to the amount of US $ 6,0-7,0 bl are increased every year in Uzbekistan. Prepared reserves of mineral raw materials in their majority not only provide the acting mining complex for a long perspective but permit to increase capacities, again to organize extraction of some minerals such as gold, uranium, copper, lead, silver, lithium, phosphorites, agrochemical ores and etc. The extraction and processing of the mineral raw materials take one of the leading places influencing the development of the industrial and agricultural production. On the base of the prepared reserves more than 440 pits, mines, quarries, oil and gas fields, plants and others are working now in the Republic.

Electric power engineering of Uzbekistan is the base branch of the Republic national economy and has the significant productive and scientific and technical potential.

Geographically situated in the core of Central Asia and processing of about 50% of the generating capacities of the total installed capacity of all the electric power stations of the Central Asia United Energy System, the Uzbek energy system is the main link of an indissoluble chain of the electrical energy production and its transmission in the region.

The Uzbek energy system has 37 electric power stations, the industrial capacity of which is 11,2 min kwh including 9,8 min kwh of thermal stations and ^,4 min kwh of hydroelectric stations with a potential possibility of the electric energy production in the volume of 60 bl kwh per year.

The Uzbek energy system completely meets the demand for the Republic electric energy and partially exports it to the neighbouring CIS states preserving the electric power independence and being a profitable branch. The existent capacities of the electric power stations permit to provide with the electric energy all the investment projects being realized in Uzbekistan at the nearest perspective (US $ 3,5 bl) without the creation of new generating capacities.

Industry

Powerful industrial enterprises representing practically all the branches of industry from heavy industry (machine-building, aviation and motor) to the branches of light industry and industrial processing of agricultural products and science intensive industries are created and operated in the Republic. Industrial products are produced by 2,2 thou. of large- and middle-scale enterprises and 30 thou. of small-scale enterprises.

At present there are 9 large gas pipelines with a common length of more than 4 thou. km on the territory of the Republic. The most large pipelines are Central Asia-Center (output is 56 bl m^ per year) and Bukhara-Ural (9,12 bl m^). On the Republic large field 'Angrensky' coal is extracted by the method of open-cut mining.

The two thirds of machine-building products in Central Asia region are produced at the machine-building enterprises of Uzbekistan. The multibranch machine-building complex of the Republic of Uzbekistan is represented by more than hundred joint-stock companies and enterprises united in large associations, holding companies and financial and industrial groups. The broad and different kinds of machine-building, electrotechnical, electronic and other products are produced at enterprises of the complex. These are power transformers and transformer substations, law-voltage equipment and equipment for nuclear electric stations, electric motors and electric welding equipment, alkaline accumulators, compressor stations and turbo-compressors, bridge and gantry cranes, excavators and tractors, practically all kinds of cable and conductor products including fibre-optic ones, spinning machines, television and radio equipment, refrigerators and many others.

At present only two countries of the world the USA and Uzbekistan have enterprises producing a full set of field agricultural and cotton-ginning equipment for cotton planting, harvesting and processing.

Uzbekistan is the only state in Central Asia region producing equipment for silkworm breeding and silk-spinning. One of the largest aircraft plants in the CIS countries is situated in Uzbekistan. There is no analogues neither in East Europe nor in Asia. The different aircraft modifications such as transport, fuel filling, ambulance and others are produced at the plant. A serial production of new types of passenger air-crafts 1L-114' and transport aircrafts 1L-114T' is started on this enterprise. In the Republic the motor plant for car production is put into operation, the construction of the plants for lorries and buses production is being completed now.

The Republic is the only in Central Asia producer of ferrous metals and rolled steel, kaprolac-tame, motors, tractor trailers, lifts, crystal wares, hydraulic pumps and others. The metallurgy of Uzbekistan is represented by the largest Central Asia plants for ferrous and

non-ferrous metals production such as Uzbek metallurgical combinat, Almalik ore mining and smelting combinat, Navoi ore mining and smelting combinat, Uzbek combinat of refractory and heat resistant metals and others. Refined gold, silver and palladium produced by the enterprises of the concern 'Kizilkumredmetzoloto' exceed world standards by their quality. The chemical industry is represented by enterprises producing mineral fertilizers, plant protection chemicals, chemical fibre and threds, synthetic detergents, varnish

and paint materials, plastics, synthetic resins (including kaprolactame, acetates of cellulosa and nitril-acrylic acid), pipes and pipe elements, household chemistry goods, perfumery and cosmetic products and others. The oil chemistry industry produces a wide range of products. The enterprises of microbiology industry produce fodder protein, xylite, different alcohols including ethyl alcohol.

The Uzbekistan light industry is a large multibranch industrial complex with a high rate of production provided with equipment. Its share makes up more than one third of total industrial enterprises of the Republic , its basic funds and number of stuff, a considerable part of foreign trade turnover, financial and currency receipts. The light industry enterprises produce more than 20% of volume of the Republic industrial production. Investments in the cotton processing, textile, clothing branches of industry are the most effective, profitable and self-payable. Industrial processing of fruit and vegetable products produced and exported by the state is the important branch of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The state has a well equipped large-, medium- and small-scale enterprises for the production of tobacco products and alcoholic beverages, tinned food, vegetable oil and butter, margarine, meat and milk, confectionery, bakery products, macaroni products, fresh and dryed fruits and vegetables, melon products. Juices and soft drinks are produced in the Republic.

On the base of the more intensive foreign investments attraction to the economy, the capacities of the modern enterprises are increased, new technologies are introduced that permits to produce products meeting requirements for world parterns by their parameters and being in much demand in many foreign countries.

Agriculture

Uzbekistan is the country of the ancient irrigated farming. At present more than 4,2 min ha of lands are irrigated here. Irrigated farming is the basis of the food independence of the Republic and the main source of export. It gives more than 95% of the total plant-growing output.

Water management of the Republic is represented by 54 republican water storages with the total volume of 16,5 bl m^ as well as 5 interrepublican ones with the total volume of 40,6 bl m^. The water works net is represented by channels with the total length of 190 thou. km; the length of collectors and drainage systems is more than 270 thou. km. Every year 50-55 bl m^ of water are used for the irrigation. The Republic is the main producer and the supplier of cotton, the most important strategic product with the great export potential. All Central Asia produces about 2 mint of the cotton fibre 1,4 min t of which are produced by Uzbekistan.

Uzbekistan is on the fifth place in the world by the cotton fibre production. The Republic is the largest producer of fruits, vegetables and grapes many varieties of which are unique by their gustatory qualities thanks to the specific natural and climate conditions. Today 5 min t of fruit and vegetable products are produced in Uzbekistan which considerably exceed the demands of the republi-

can market. There are the rich traditions of storing and processing of the fruit and vegetable products with maximal preserving of their nutritious and gustatory properties.

Silkworm cocoons, astrakhan pelts and raw leather as well as wool are much in demand in the world market.

The collective, cooperative, joint-stock enterprises, dekhkan (peasant) farms are becoming the base of the organizational and legal forms of the economic management.

Construction

The construction complex of Uzbekistan has a great potential which is able to ensure the fulfillment of construction and assembly works to the amount of 100-110 bl soums (US $ 2,7-3 bl) yearly. Contract organizations of the Republic carry out the construction of the largest units such as Asakin automotive plant, Bukhara petroleum processing plant, Kuvasaisk plant 'Kvartz' for the production of the architecture and building glass, Kungrad plant for soda production, Kizilkum combinat for phosphorite production and many others.

Every year more than 4 min t of cement, 4,5 min m^ of reinforced concrete items, 3 bl units of brick are produced in the Republic. The building materials such as linoleum, glass, lining materials from natural stone and ceramics, gyps, lime, wooden articles are presented in large range.

Transport and communication

The transcontinental transport lines providing foreign freight traffic practically pass through all the regions of the Republic.

The total length of the railway lines of the company 'Uzbekiston Temir Yullari' is 3655 km including 680 km of the two-way lines and 489 km of the electrified sections.

Putting into operation of the main lines of Navoi-Uchkuduk-Sultanuizdag-Nukus (341 km) and Guzar-Baisoon-Kumkurgan (223 km) being under construction will permit to complete a formation of the independent railway network of the Republic and to provide the transport availability to all the natural resources of the Republic. With coming into operation of the new line Tedzhen-Serakhs-Meshkhed connecting

the railways of the Republic through Iran with the Euroasia railway, the creation of the transcontinental line South-East Asia-Western Europe which is 1500 km shoter than the Trans-Siberian Railway will be completed.

At the same time Uzbekistan took an active part in the realization of the project of the Trans-Cauca-sus road which opened an opportunity to connect Uzbekistan and Central Asia countries with Europe through the ports of Poty.

The automobile road network of the Republic is on the leading place among the CIS countries by the basic indicators of their development. It fully meets the requirements in freight and passenger traffics. The total length of the main automobile road network is 84,4 thou km including 43,3 thou km of roads of common use, 3243

km of which are of international significance, 18582 km of state significance, 21493 km of local (oblast) significance.

The existing roads permit to provide regular passing of transit freight and passengers through the territory of the Republic to Kirgizstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Afganistan and through them the ways to the automobile roads of Pakistan, India, Iran and to the countries of South-West Asia.

Uzbekistan has a reliable transport communication with the Republic of Kazakhstan, through this the way to the automobile roads of Russia, China and other Asia and Pacific ocean countries is provided.

The aircrafts of the National Avia Company of the Republic 'Uzbekiston Khavo Yullari' regular flight to the twenty world countries. The direct avialines connect Tashkent with New-York, London, Frankfurt, Beijing, Seui and other cities of the world as well as the main industrial, cultural centers and health resorts of the CIS countries.

The Avia Company has modern air liners A-310, IL-86, IL-76, IL-62, TU-154 and others, it has a considerable park of aircrafts for the local airlines. The Republic is a member of international organizations of civil aviation ICATO and IATA. The Tashkent airport is attributed to the first category of ICATO and can take the modern aircrafts of all the world states.

Uzbekistan has the developed telecommunication network. More than 1,5 min of subscribers use the services of the telephone network. The services of the local, intertown, international telephone, cellular, paging communication are supplied to the subscribers of the telephone network.

Tashkent intertown telephone exchange is the largest in Central Asia and plays the role of the transit exchange for Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Kirgizstan, Kazakhstan on going to the CIS countries and non-former Soviet Union countries. The section of Trans-Asia-Europe cable main (TAE) with the use of fibre-optic cable passing through the territory of the Republic is now under construction. It will permit the subscribers of the Republic to receive information of the neighbouring countries to the West and East.

Foreign economic relations

The stable social and political situation, the favourable investment climate, the presence of necessary and cheap in exploitation social and productive infrastructure promote the yearly increasing of the volume of foreign investments in the Republic economy.

In 1994 the total volume of the direct foreign investments was 932,7 min soums, in 1995 12,4 bl soums. In 1996 it is expected to assimilate more than 55,5 bl soums or US $ 1,5 bl.

The attraction of foreign investments on the base of joint-stock enterprises creation is considerably developing in the Republic.

Towards the end of 1995 more than 2 thou of enterprises with foreign investments created together with the representatives of more than 70 foreign states were registered in Uzbekistan. In 1995, 672 enterprises were established in the Republic, i.e. their number increased 1,4 times for the year of account. The leading countries-investors from non-former Soviet Union countries are Turkey (129 acting enterprises), the USA (110), Pakistan (71), Great Britain (55), China (42), Germany (37), Italy (25), Switzerland (22) and others. The share of only these countries in export by enterprises with foreign investments was about 50%. In 1996 it is planned to establish 350 joint-ventures and organizations with foreign investments. In 1995 the foreign trade turnover of the Republic was US $ 6001,7 min that 13,3% more the level of 1994. The foreign trade turnover increased by 54,3%. The share of foreign countries in the total turnover reached 56,5% against 41,5% in 1994. By the results of 1995, the positive foreign trade balance was US $ 216,3 min or increased by US $ 135,9 min against 1994.

The positive balance with the CIS countries and the Baltic states was US $ 25,5 min, and with non former Soviet Union countries US$190,8 min.

Deepening of the economic reforms

The institutional transformations.

In 1995 more than 8,5 thou. objects were transformed into another forms of property including almost 2000 enterprises and institutions privatized by the programme.

On the base of denationalized enterprises 3000 open joint-stock companies were created at the end of 1995.

The processes of the denationalization, privatization and convertion of the enterprises into joint-stock companies in the branches of light and building materials industries, trade and services have been practically completed. The money receipts, as a result of privatization, were 2,4 bl soums (5,3 times more than 1994) including 2 bl soums from the equities selling and almost 0,4 bl soums from the real estate realization.

The measures for the development of the securities market infrastructure were implemented. 11 district branches and 81 broker firms were created by the Republican commodity-stock exchange Toshkent'; the National depository is actively functioning.

The fund for support of private enterpreneurship and small business, the Business fund, is established to support private enterpreneurship and small business as well as to provide conditions for steady raising of production in the non-state sector.

The influence of the non-state sector in the economy of the country is strengthening. Its share is 67% of the national income. 49% of industrial products, 97% of agricultural products, 62% of contract work in construction, 91% of goods turnover are produced in the non-state sector of the economy. The priorities of the economic policy and the directions of their realization. The openness of Uzbekistan economy for foreign entrepreneurs is confirmed by the five basic principles advanced by the President of Uzbekistan which are successively realized in the Republic and layed down into the foundation of all programme for the formation of the national model in the transition to the market relations. These principles reflecting the specificity of the national mentality create the 'frame' conditions for the liberalization of the economy, secure the reliable guarantees for foreign investors.

The first principle the deideologization of the economy, the priority of economy over politics.

The second principle defines the state as a chief reformer of the economy. The state in the interest of the nation identifies the basic priorities of the economic progress and elaborates and consistently implements a policy of the radical transformations in the economy, the social sphere and the public and political life of the state.

This principle is realized in the institutional and system transformations being conducted now including the formation of the effective legal basis providing the guarantees for a foreign capital, which is disclosed in the third principle the principle of the law predomination.

The new Constitution and Laws accepted by a democratic way and meeting the requirements of the international law are obligatory for all without exception. Furthermore, by the priority directions for Uzbekistan social and economic development the most-favoured nation treatment is created including different easy conditions of assistance.

The fourth plinciple is the implementation of preventive move for the social protection of the population, first of all, its socially vulnerable strata.

A strong, effective mechanism of the social protection and the social guarantees secure a dynamic advancement towards the market economy preserving the social and political stability.

The fifth principle is the stage-by-stage and consistent reformation which means a purposeful formation of the value market economy. This is one of the leading principles. It determines the entire inner logic dynamism and the nature of economic reform. To realize this the major stages of reform are identified, for each of them concrete objectives and mechanisms for their achievement are determined.

The normative and legal base of independent appearance of the Republic enterprises and institutions at the foreign market, the establishment of new organizational and economy structures, the provision of reliable guarantees and privileges for foreign investors, securing a protection of their rights of property and a repatriation of received profits creating the favourable investment climate for their activity are formed.

Among the normative documents regulating foreign economic activity it is necessary to note the Laws 'On Foreign Economic Activities', 'On Foreign Investments and Guarantees of Foreign Investors Activities', 'On Regulation of Currency', the Decrees of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan 'On Measures for Stimulation of Foreign Economic Activity, Attraction and Protection of Foreign Investments' and 'On Economic Measures for Stimulation of Foundation and Activity of Enterprises with Foreign Investments', the range of Resolutions of the Government that essentially simplify the order of the establishment and the registration of joint-ventures. The considerable tax privileges for the priority directions of foreign investments were provided for in the Republic.

The normative and legal base of the economic reform creates the legal most-favoured nation treatment for foreign investors attraction. Thus, Uzbekistan both by its productive, natural and raw material, investment, labour, intellectual resources and by the legal guarantees is the advantageous, attractive and correct partner for a cooperation.

The basic results of the economic development in 1991-1995. The volume of the gross domestic product was almost 300 bl soums. In 1995 the volume of the industrial output increased against the level of 1994 and was 100,2%, agricultural products 102,3%, investments development 102,0%. In 1995 the share of employed persons in the nongovernmental enterprises and institutions was 66,1 % against 38,9% in 1991. It was as a result of growth of private enterprises and joint-stock companies where the share of employed persons increased and was 3,0 and 9,7% correspondingly in 1995 against 0,2 and 0,1% in 1991.

The number of dekhkan farms increased almost 10 times against 1991 and was 18,1 thou.

In 1995 the industrial output of the Republic was 143,1 bl soums. The positive changes in the structure of the industrial production took place. In 1995 the share of

the basic and science intensive branches was about 58% against 44% in 1994. New progressive branches instrument making (126,7% against the level of 1994), motor industry (153,4%), chemistry and pharmaceutic (in 2 times) were developed with outstripping.

The production of more than 400 kinds of the import-changing products practically in all the industrial branches is organized.

In 1995 oil production increased 3,7 times, natural gas 1,2 times against 1991. The growth of the oil and gas condensate production practically secured the energy independence that promoted significantly to reach the positive balance in the trade with the CIS countries.

In 1995 the production of mineral fertilizers, synthetic ammonium, accumulators, tractors, cotton-picking machines, ball bearings, window glass, cotton fabrics, television sets, videorecords and other products increased against the level of 1994. In 1995 the production of the agricultural gross output was 123,6 bl soums. In accordane with the directions accepted in the Republic towards the strengthening of the grain independence this branch has the priority direction. The share of sowing lands under cereals is almost 40% (in 1991 25,7%). The grain production increased 1,7 times against the level of 1991 and was 3,2 min t. In 1995 potato production increased by 25%, fruits 16,6% against 1991. As a whole a number of live-stock increased by 3,7% including 19,4% of the personal holdings.

In 1995 meat production increased by 6,4% against the level of 1991, milk10,4%, astrakhan 4%. A considerable share of produced live-stock products falls to the individual holdings of the population where 76% of meat, 81 % of milk, 66% of eggs are produced.

In 1995 the enterprises and institutions of all forms of proprietorship assimilated 82,2 bl soums of capital investments, in industrial construction ?97A 54,9 bl soums or 67% of the total volume of investments.

The share of foreign investments and direct foreign credits in the total volume of the capital investments increased by 14,4% against 6,6% in 1994. In the branches of agrobusiness 8,9 bl soums of capital investments were used on account of all sources of funds (11 % of total volume). The irrigation of new lands on the square of 25,3 thou ha that was 123% of the level of 1994 was carried out. The water-mains of 1,5 thou. km length or 111% of the level of 1994 including 1,3 thou. km or 110% in rural districts were put in operation. 5,2 thou. km of gas pipelines including 4,7 thou. km or 90% of total putting in operation in rural districts were turned over for operation. As a whole the investments in non-productive construction were 27,2 bl soums all over the Republic. A share of means for the construction of the social sphere objects was 33% of the capital investments total volume. In 1995 58,6 thou. flats with total flour space of 4938,8 thou. m^ were built. General education schools for 47,9 thou. places, nursery schools 3,1 thou. places, hospitals 1,6 thou beds are put into operation.

In 1995 46,1 min t of freight that more than 15% against 1994 were carried by the railway transport of common use. The sheepment of coal increased by 45,1%, mineral fertilizers 47,3%, petroleum freight 37,2%, building freights 19,8%, ferrous metals -11%.

34,3 min t of gas or 103,9% of the level of 1994 were pumped by the main pipelines. In 1995 2690,6 min passengers were carried by all kinds of the transport including motor transport (2,3 bl persons).

In 1995 the value of retail turnover was 104,2 bl soums, the turnover of ware and food products markets was 54,8 bl soums more than 10,2% of the level of 1994 in a comparable price. All the trade organizations are transformed into joint-stocks, private and collective formes of proprietorship.

1 September 1991 the day of independence of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

18 November 1991 the day of the ratification of the State Flag of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

2 March 1992 the day of the acception of the Republic of Uzbekistan into the United Nations Organization (UN).

2 July 1992 the day of the ratification of the State Emblem of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

8 December 1992 the day of the acception of the Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

10 December 1992 the day of ratification of the National Anthem of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

1 July 1994 the day of the introduction into circulation the national currency, sourn, of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

Capital Tashkent

Territory (thou.m^ ) 447.4

Population (thou.persons) 23007.2

of which:

urban 8831.0 rural 14176.2

As a part of the Republic of Uzbekistan :

The Republic of Karakalpakstan

districts 12

regions 163

cities 119

Distance frornTashkent to the central cities of Karakalpakstan and districts (km):

Nukus 1255

Namangan 432

Andizhan 447

Samarkand 354

Bukhara 616

Termez 708

Jizak 203

Gulistan 118

Karshi 558

Ferghana 419

Navoi 509

Urgench 1119

1995 as % of 1994

Gross domestic product 98.8

National income 98.4

Industry products 100.2

Agricultural products 102.3

Freight traffic by common use transport 96.0

Retail commodity circulation 92.2

Population monetary income (in times) 3.3

Population monetary goods purchasing and service expences (in times) 3.2

Schedule N. 1

Comparative indicators of the CIS countries in 1991-1995 (as % of previous year)

GDP production

Total volume of industrial output

Agricultural gross output

i i i ^ i >3 i aa^ i o

Belarus Kazakhstan Kirgizstan I Russia n Uzbekistan Ukraine

1991 1992 1993 1994 1995

Gross domestic product (minsoums, at current price) 61.5 443.9 5095.2 64877.6 298529.7

including:

industry 16.2 118.2 1139.7 11031.2 49067.9

construction 6.4 42.2 457.1 4703.6 23227.8

agriculture 22.9 157.2 1420.9 22355.9 85069.9

trade 2.4 24.6 316.9 4834.3 16821.2

transport and communication 2.6 23.2 280.5 3767.5 25119.3

others 11.0 78.5 1480.1 18185.5 99223.6

Schedule N. 2 Structure of gross domestic product by sectors of economic activity

Industry

Construction J Agriculture

Trade

Transport and communication

Others

1991 1992 1993 1994 1995

Total (%) 100 100 100 100 100

including:

state sector 60.5 60.7 52.7 35.4 32.7

nonstate sector 39.5 39,3 47.3 64.6 67.3

of which:

rent 2.4 2.8 2.8 1.5 1.6

corporate ... 0.8 3.0 9.6 11.7

dekhkanfarm 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.8 1.1

joint venture 0.2 0.5 1.0 1.1 2.6

cooperative sector 4.2 3.9 11.4 6.5 6.7

private ... 0.3 1.2 6.5 6.6

Schedule N. 3 Institutional transformations of economy in 1995

National income produced

Industrial products production

Agricultural gross output Volume of contract works Retail turnover

Number of employed population

State property F Nonstate property

1991 1992 1993 1994 1995

Number of available population

(thou.persons) 21207 21703 22192 22562 23007

Population density her km" 47.4 48.5 49.6 50.4 51.4 As (%)

in total 100 100 100 100 100

urban 40.1 39.5 39.1 38.7 38.7

rural 59.9 60.5 60.9 61.3 61.6

As (%) of total

males 49.4 49.5 49.5 49.5 49.6

females 50.6 50.5 50.5 50.5 50.4

Population in main cities total (thou.persons)

Tashkent 2126 2114 2106 2109 2107

Samarkand 372 368 365 362 362

Namangan 333 341 348 354 362

Andizhan 302 303 305 307 313

Bukhara 235 236 237 238 238

Schedule N. 4 Population by age category

fi under 16 I r of working age beyond working age

as of January 1, 1995, %

Uzbekistantotal 100

Uzbeks 75.8

Russians 6.0

Tajiks 4.8

Kazakhs 4.1

Tatars 1 -6

Kirghizes 0.9

Turkmens 0.6

Ukrainians 0.6

Azerbaijanians 0.2

Armenians 0.2

Byelorussians 0.1

Jews 0.1

Germans 0.1

Other nationalities 4.9

thou. persons 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995

Number of persons employed

in the economy 8254.6 8271.0 8259.0 8150.3 8157.5

Number of registered

unemployed (at end of year) ... 8.8 13.3 21.8 25.4

Unemployment rate (%) ... 0.11 0.16 0.27 0.31

Number of unemployed on benefit (at end of year) ... 7.1 7.6 12.3 12.5

Schedule N. 5 Employment by sector of economic activity

industry

agriculture ^construction

transport and communication

^2

trade and other material production brandus

housing and public services

health care, education, science, culture, art

other sectors

1991 1992 1993 1994 1995

Employed total (%) 100 100 100 100 100

including: state enterprises

and organizations 61.1 57.8 51.3 40.3 33.9

nonstate enterprises and organizations 38.9 42.21 48.7 59.71 66.11

of which:

private enterprises 0.2 0.6 1.3 2.2 3.0

rent enterprises 1.9 1.7 1.7 1.6 0.3

corporate enterprises 0.1 0.6 1.2 5.5 9.7

public organizations (funds) 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.5

joint-venture enterprises 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4

collective farm property 14.4 16.3 19.4 20.3 19.1

dekhkan farms 0.1 0.3 0.3 0.8 1.2

others 16.8 17.2 18.8 20.4 20.1

1995

General institutions of secondary education 9478

Enrollment in general institutions (thou. persons) 5145

Institutions of higher education 58

Enrollment in higher education institutions (thou. persons) 192

General institutions of secondary special education 252

Enrollment in general institutions of secondary special education (thou. persons) 195

Enrollment per 1000 population

in general institutions of secondary education 225

in higher education institutions 8

in general institutions of secondary special education 11

Number of museums 66

Number of theaters 37

Number of cinemas 2376

1995

Numder of hospitals (un) 1347

Number of hospital beds - total (thou) 192.5

per 1000 persons 8.4

Number of physicians of all specialities (thou) 76.2

per 1000 persons 3.3

Medical personal - total (thou) 249.6

per 1000 persons 10.9

Number of ambulatory and polyclinic institutions (un) 3107

Output of ambulatory and polyclinic institutions (thou. attendance per session) 307.1

1994 1995

Gross industrial output index (1990=100) 99.7 99.9 Production of principle industrial products

electricity (bn KWh) 47.8 47.4

petroleum, including

gas condensate (min t) 5.5 7.6

gas(bnm^) 47.2 48.6

coal (thou. t) 3845 3054

primary petroleum refining (min t) 6.3 6.8

including local raw materials 4.4 6.5

diesel fuel (mint) 2.3 2.1

fuel oil (mint) 2.2 2.1

cont. 1994 1995

Ferrous and non - ferrous metallurgy products:

steel (thou. t) 364.3 367.2

finished rolled metal (thou. t) 336.8 341.8

milling balls - ^^

Chemical industry products:

sulphuric acid (thou. t) 804.7 1016.1

synthetic ammonia (thou. t) 985.2 1101.9

mineral fertilizers (thou. t) 810.8 943.1

chemicals for plant protection (thou. t) 12.0 14.7

Mechanical - engineering products:

tractors (un) 1684 4002

lorries (including lorries with trailers) (un) 75 294

cotton-picking machines (un) 651 1121

alkaline accumulators (min a.h.) 15.4 21.2

fibre-optic telephone cables (km) - 440

Building materials production:

cement (min t) 4.8 3.4

window glass (thou m^) 720 1358

soft roofing materials and isol (min m') 29.5 22.1

portland cement for road sufrace and airfield pavement (thou. t) ^

Schedule N. 6 Structural changes in industrial production

Electric-power industry

Fuel industry

Non-ferrous metallurgy

Chemical and oil-chemical industry

a Mechanical endineering i and metal-working

industry

Light industry

J Food industry

Others

1991 1992 1993 1994 1995

Consumer goods at distributing price (minsoums) 24.7 178.3 1883.3 26873.7 77361.0

including:

washing mashines (thou. un) 13.4 8.8 10.3 8.5 14.0

domestic sewing mashines

(thou. un) ... ... ... 1090 1449

videorecorders (thou. un) 2.1 18.9 6.5 23.9 25.3

televison sets (thou. un) 0.1 9.2 16.4 50.7 58.6

small equipment for bakery

of firm 'Vinkler' (thou. soums) ... ... ... ... 9700

cotton fabrics (minm^) 391.7 474.3 482.0 480.0 466.1

including terry cloth,

towelling a.o. (thou.1.m) ... ... ... ... 20500

Khan-atlas with methanite

(thou l.m.) ... ... ... ... 1100

panne and velours (thou. 1.m.) ... ... ... ... 140

cognac (thou. dal) 147.0 144.0 123.0 136.0 143.0

matches (thou. boxes) ... ... ... 9.9 29.4

1991 1992 1993 1994 1995

Agricultural output indices (%, to previous year) 98.9 93.6 101.3 92.7 102.3

including:

crop production 94.7 93.1 99.1 91.8 105.6

livestock production 106.2 94.4 104.7 94.0 98.6

Sown area of crops in all categories of housholds (thou. ha) 4200.3 4222.0 4229.7 4240.7 4165.0

including:

grain 1079.9 1212.2 1280.3 1522.2 1656.5

technical cultures 1760.4 1704.2 1731.8 1579.0 1532.6

of which:

cotton 1720.5 1666.7 1695.1 1540.0 1492.8

potatoes 40.0 42.9 44.5 53.0 45.9

vegetables 165.6 179.5 151.9 156.9 149.6

Crop yield (thou. t) Grain, weight after

primary treatment 1908.2 2257.2 2142.4 2466.9 3215.31

Raw cotton 4645.8 4128.3 4234.5 3937.8 3950.11

Potatoes 351.2 365.3 472.4 567.1 439.9

Fruits 516.6 701.5 560.1 555.1 602.3

Output of livestock products (thou. t):

Meet 491.8 469.2 503.6 509.2 523.5

Milk 3331.4 3679.2 3764.0 3731.6 3677.4

Astrakhan (thou. un) 1475.8 1603.8 1617.1 1540.2 1535.2

1991 1992 1993 1994 1995

Farms number (thou. at end of year) 1.9 5.9 7.5 14.2 18.1

Land area attached for farms

(thou. ha) 13.7 45.1 70.6 193.1 264.6

Land lot average area (ha) 7.3 7.6 9.4 13.6 14.6

Produced (t):

meat ... 4193.1 4495.3 13388.0 17644.3

milk ...23629.5 24956.1 52560.6 71535.4

eggs (thou. un) ... 1273.1 2608.2 3324.0 4938.9

wool ... 71.6 81.2 155.9 211.4

1991 1992 1993 1994 1995

Capital investment(mlnsoums) 11.6 103.6 1272.6 14117.31 82164.1

including forms of properties share of total (%):

state property 76 69 75 68 57

nonsate property 24 31 25 32 43

Foreign investments (minsoums) ... ... 0.9 932.7 12410.6

Capital investments to environment and natural resources rational

utilization (minsoums) 0.2 1.2 23.8 228.7 1333.9

Providing with dwelling (m" of total floor space per capita) 12.2 12.6 12.7 12.8 12.8

Schedule N. 7 Dwelling stock structure

Individual property

^^^ Housing-cooperative _^ ^^^ property ^J

^^1 ^ State, collective ^^ ^^^ property ^^

,4 ____________________

1995

Freight traffic by common use transport (min t) 301.3

including:

rail 46.1

motor 220.6

air (thou. t) 10-6

pipeline ^'^

Passenger traffic by common use transport (min persons) 2690.6

of which:

bus 2260.7

trolley-bus 138-4

rail 14.4

tram 130.2

underground 119.4

air 1.3

Schedule N. 8 Structure of passanger turnover by kinds of transport of common use

1994 1995

Foreign trade turnover (%) 100 100

Export 50.7 51.8

Import 49.3 48.2

Schedule N. 9 Goods structure

cotton-fibre

B mineral and chemical products

ferrous and nonferrous metals

others

foot products l machines and equipment

l ferrous and nonferrous metals

B mineral and chemical products

others

1994 1995 export import export import

Total (min US $) 2689.9 2609.5 3109.0 2892.7

CIS countries and Baltic states 1683.5 1416.5 1317.2 1291.7

Azerbaijan 1.2 0.6. 4.0 1.2

Armenia 0.03 0.1

Belarus 21.6 8.51 31.7 50.0

Georgia 0.4 0.3 0.9 0.5

Kazakhstan 311.8 193.11 238.1 217.7

Kyrgyzstan 102.0 67.81 68.3 34.1

Moldova 1.4 0.6 3.1 1.9

Russia 778.8 779.2 584.8 720.0

Tajikistan 225.31 164.91 156.1 73.0

Turkmenistan 174.31 144.21 150.4 98.7

Ukraine 43.5; 42.81 45.0 61.4

Latvia 6.6 6.5 15.1 3.7

Utva 16.1 7.7 10.4 28.4

Estonia 0.5 0.2 9.3 1.0

Non former Soviet Union

countries*) 1006.4 1193.0 1791.8 1601.0

Austria 41.7 27.0 41.2 10.1

Belgium 7.5 15.2 0.3 4.3

Hungary 1.5 87.4 1.9 145.6

Great Britain 175.1 18.1 236.6 27.9

Germany 32.4 1

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